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دستورات لینوکس – مقدماتی Linux Commands Cheat Sheet

Linux Commands Cheat Sheet in Black & White

Keep this Linux command cheat sheet on your desk printed, I am sure you will learn them quickly and will be a Linux expert very soon. We have added had both pdf and image (png) format of the cheat sheet.

Command are categorized into different sections according to its usage. We have designed the command in white color with black background as we often use on Linux shell. We have added bit color for attraction.

We have grouped Linux commands in the below sections for better understanding.

Linux command cheat sheet

  • System
  • Hardware
  • Users
  • File Commands
  • Process Related
  • File Permission
  • Network
  • Compression / Archives
  • Install Packages
  • Install Source
  • Search
  • Login
  • File Transfer
  • Directory Traverse

Download your linux commands cheat sheet in pdf format which is updated in 2019. Please keep us posted if you have any suggestions or if you find any command that we missed out.

If you are looking to print Linux commands cheat sheet in A4 size paper its available for download.

Linux Commands Cheat Sheet

۱) System

uname  Displays  Linux system information
uname -r Displays  kernel release information
uptime Displays how long the system has been running including load average
hostname Shows the system hostname
hostname -i Displays the IP address of the system
last reboot Shows system reboot history
date Displays current system date and time
timedatectl Query and change the System clock
cal Displays the current calendar month and day
w Displays currently  logged in users in the system
whoami Displays who you are logged in as
finger username Displays information about the user

۲) Hardware

dmesg Displays bootup messages
cat /proc/cpuinfo Displays more information about CPU e.g model, model name, cores, vendor id
cat /proc/meminfo Displays more information about hardware memory e.g. Total and Free memory
lshw Displays information about system’s hardware configuration
lsblk Displays block devices related information
free -m Displays free and used memory in the system (-m flag indicates memory in MB)
lspci -tv Displays PCI devices in a tree-like diagram
lsusb -tv Displays USB devices in a tree-like diagram
dmidecode Displays hardware information from the BIOS
hdparm -i /dev/xda Displays information about disk data
hdparm -tT /dev/xda <:code> Conducts a read speed test on device xda
badblocks -s /dev/xda Tests  for unreadable blocks on disk

۳) Users

id Displays the details of the active user e.g. uid, gid, and groups
last Shows the last logins in the system
who Shows who is logged in to the system
groupadd "admin" Adds the group ‘admin’
adduser "Sam" Adds user Sam
userdel "Sam" Deletes user Sam
usermod Used for changing / modifying user information

۴) File Commands

ls -al Lists files – both regular &  hidden files and their permissions as well.
pwd Displays the current directory file path
mkdir 'directory_name' Creates a new directory
rm file_name Removes a file
rm -f filename Forcefully removes a file
rm -r directory_name Removes a directory recursively
rm -rf directory_name Removes a directory forcefully and recursively
cp file1 file2 Copies the contents of file1 to file2
cp -r dir1 dir2 Recursively Copies dir1 to dir2. dir2 is created if it does not exist
mv file1 file2 Renames file1 to file2
ln -s /path/to/file_name   link_name Creates a symbolic link to file_name
touch file_name Creates a new file
cat > file_name Places standard input into a file
more file_name Outputs the contents of a file
head file_name Displays the first 10 lines of a file
tail file_name Displays the last 10 lines of a file
gpg -c file_name Encrypts a file
gpg file_name.gpg Decrypts a file
wc Prints the number of bytes, words and lines in a file
xargs Executes commands from standard input

۵) Process Related

ps Display currently active processes
ps aux | grep 'telnet' Searches for the id of the process ‘telnet’
pmap Displays memory map of processes
top  Displays all running processes
kill pid Terminates process with a given pid
killall proc Kills / Terminates all processes named proc
pkill process-name Sends a signal to a process with its name
bg Resumes suspended jobs in the background
fg Brings suspended jobs to the foreground
fg n job n to the foreground
lsof Lists files that are open by processes
renice 19 PID makes a process run with very low priority
pgrep firefox find Firefox process ID
pstree visualizing processes in tree model

۶) File Permission

chmod octal filename Change file permissions of the file to octal
Example
chmod 777 /data/test.c Set rwx permissions to owner, group and everyone (everyone else who has access to the server)
chmod 755 /data/test.c Set rwx to the owner and r_x to group and everyone
chmod ۷۶۶ /data/test.c Sets rwx for owner, rw for group and everyone
chown owner user-file Change ownership of the file
chown owner-user:owner-group file_name Change owner and group owner of the file
chown owner-user:owner-group directory Change owner and group owner of the directory

۷) Network

ip addr show Displays IP addresses and all the network interfaces
ip address add 192.168.0.1/24 dev eth0 Assigns IP address 192.168.0.1 to interface eth0
ifconfig  Displays IP addresses of all network interfaces
ping  host ping command sends an ICMP echo request to establish a connection to server / PC
whois domain Retrieves more information about a domain name
dig domain Retrieves DNS information about the domain
dig -x host  Performs reverse lookup on a domain
host google.com  Performs an IP lookup for the domain name
hostname -i Displays local IP address
wget file_name Downloads a file from an online source
netstat -pnltu Displays all active listening ports

۸) Compression/Archives

tar -cf home.tar home<:code> Creates archive file called ‘home.tar’ from file ‘home’
tar -xf files.tar Extract archive file ‘files.tar’
tar -zcvf home.tar.gz source-folder Creates gzipped tar archive file from the source folder
gzip file Compression a file with .gz extension

۹) Install Packages

rpm -i pkg_name.rpm Install an rpm package
rpm -e pkg_name Removes an rpm package
dnf install pkg_name Install package using dnf utility

۱۰) Install Source (Compilation)

./configure Checks your system for the required software needed to build the program. It will build the Makefile containing the instructions required to effectively build the project
make It reads the Makefile to compile the program with the required operations. The process may take some time, depending on your system and the size of the program
make install The command installs the binaries in the default/modified paths after the compilation

۱۱) Search

grep 'pattern' files Search for a given pattern in files
grep -r pattern dir Search recursively for a pattern in a given directory
locate file Find all instances of the file
find /home/ -name "index"  Find file names that begin with ‘index’ in /home folder
find /home -size +10000k Find files greater than 10000k in the home folder

۱۲) Login

ssh user@host Securely connect to host as user
ssh -p port_number user@host  Securely connect to host using a specified port
ssh host Securely connect to the system via SSH default port 22
telnet host Connect to host via telnet default port 23

۱۳) File Transfer

scp file1.txt server2/tmp Securely copy file1.txt to server2 in /tmp directory
rsync -a /home/apps  /backup/ Synchronize contents in /home/apps directory with /backup  directory

۱۴) Disk Usage

df  -h Displays free space on mounted systems
df  -i  Displays free inodes on filesystems
fdisk  -l Shows disk partitions, sizes, and types
du  -sh Displays disk usage in the current directory in a human-readable format
findmnt Displays target mount point for all filesystems
mount device-path mount-point Mount a device

۱۵) Directory Traverse

cd .. Move up one level in the directory tree structure
cd Change directory to $HOME directory
cd /test Change directory to /test directory

منبع :

Linux Commands Cheat Sheet in Black & White

 

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